- Look at the indicators for the age of the person you are thinking about.
- Also look at the indicators for a younger person. Do these still apply? Did some apply when the person was younger?
- If several indicators are present, further investigation may be advisable.
- A family history of dyslexia makes it more likely that the person you are considering also has dyslexia.
A preschool child may:
- have a history of delays in speaking, making sentences or pronouncing words correctly.
- have a history of ‘glue ear’ or similar early childhood difficulties.
- find it hard to remember the names of familiar objects, e.g. spoon, cup.
- have difficulty learning nursery rhymes.
- have other members of the family with similar difficulties
A primary school age child may:
- have particular difficulty learning to read, write and spell.
- have difficulty remembering sequences such as the alphabet and months of the year.
- have difficulty telling left from right.
- have difficulty copying accurately from board or textbook.
- have difficulty remembering and following oral instructions.
- have persistent and continued reversing of letters and figures, e.g. ’15’ for 51, ‘b’ for d.
- take longer than average over written work.
- experience lack of self-confidence and increasing frustration.
- in other ways be a bright and alert child.
A secondary school age child may have:
- a tendency to read inaccurately and without adequate comprehension.
- inconsistent spelling.
- difficulty with planning and writing essays.
- difficulty getting started and completing work.
- a tendency to get ‘tied up’ using long words, e.g. preliminary, philosophical.
- a tendency to confuse verbal instructions, places, times and dates.
- greater difficulty in learning a foreign language.
- low self-esteem.
- frustration which has led to behavioural or emotional difficulties.
- disorganised at home and school.
In addition to earlier characteristics, some of which may still persist, the following are indicators of dyslexia in an adult:
- difficulty with map reading.
- difficulty filling in forms and writing reports.
- tendency to miss and confuse appointment times.
- concerns about training or promotion.
- difficulty structuring work schedules.
- low opinion of capabilities.
- constantly loses and forgets items and information.